
Hydrolysis of tButyl Chloride • Need to prepare a Lab report. • Format of Lab report is attached. (Page 4 onwards) Learning Outcomes 1. To determine the order of the hydrolysis reaction of the reaction 2. To determine the effect of water: acetone ratio on the rate constant Theory The hydrolysis of tbutyl chloride takes place as follows: (CH3)3CCl + H2O → (CH3)3COH + HCl The progress of the hydrolysis is determined by making successive additions of alkali and noting the time when the indicator changes colour to the acid state. Since the alkali additions are small in relation to the large excess of water, the system can be treated as pseudo firstorder with respect to tbutyl chloride. Safety Wear safety glasses. Handle the glassware with care especially when inserting a pipette into the safety bulb. The NaOH and tBuCl are slightly corrosive so wash any off immediately, a splash from any of the chemicals into your eye will be painful. Wash your hands at the end of the lab. Procedure 1. Prepare 50 cm3of a 90% water/10% acetone mixture. 2. Pour this into 125 cm3conical flask. 3. Fill a 50 cm3burette with 0.01M NaOH.’ 4. Add 23 drops phenolphthalein into the 125 cm3conical flask and shake content. 5. Discharge 2 cm3 NaOH from burette and shake content. 6. Pipette 1.0 cm3of the solution (of tbutyl chloride (1%) in acetone) provided, into the conical flask and start the clock when the pipette is half empty. 7. Shake contents of conical flask and record the time for the indicator colour ndicator colour change is observed). 9. Record the temperature of the content in the conical flask at this stage. 10. Repeat the whole experiment with two other water/acetone ratios  e.g. 80% water and 20% Acetone. 1 Treatment of Results Consider the following questions during your experiment and include as part of your writeup. 1. What are the units of first and second order rate constants? 2. What is meant by pseudofirst order reaction? Represent this in equations. 3. Derive an equation to show how the concentration of the reactant varies with time for a first order, constant volume batch reaction. 4. How will you plot your data to determine the rate constant for the reaction? 5. How do you determine the slope of semilogarithmic plot? Confirm the order of the reaction and determine the reaction rate constant for the different proportions of water in reaction mixture. DATA 80% Water & 20% Acetone (Volume of base added) (time) 3 2:23 2 4:29 1 7:53 0.5 9:26 0.5 13:32 0.5 19:02 0.5 25:36 0.5 33:01 90% Water & 10% Acetone (Volume of base added) (time) 3 0:50 2 2:15 1 3:25 0.5 4:12 0.5 5:10 0.5 6:33 0.5 9:16 0.5 11:40 0.25 12:57 0.3 15:18 0.2 17:03 0.5 25:02 • Plot points as a trendline • When becomes colourless note down the time • Use error values 2 • Calculate concentration and use log for calculations • Include neutralization reactions • For first case Ti = 22 and Tf = 24, Second Case Ti = Tf =23(values in oC). 3 Format of Laboratory Reports You only must write a short form of a lab report, from experimental results, discussion, and

THE UNIVERSITY OF HULL Department of Chemical Engineering Level 5 Process Control Assignment Trimester 2 2021/22 500672 Process Control and Instrumentation for Chemical Engineers Page 1 of 11 Instructions: You can work either individually or as a group of two on this assignment. You are reminded of the University of Hull's policy on academic integrity, which will be rigorously enforced. If in any doubt about the policy, please onsult your Module Leader BEFORE you submit your assignment. In the event of you needing to property data, please state your source of information. DO NOT provide a handwritten work. Your final submission should be typed in using, for example, MS word. You then need to convert this document to PDF and upload it into Canvas. . If you work on this assignment as a group of two, o One student should submit a full (single) PDF coursework document in Canvas. Another should only submit the cover page as part of his/her individual submission. o Write a short paragraph to explain your individual contribution (preferably, at the beginning of your submitted document). Show clearly all your assumptions required to complete the tasks of the assignment. Use a Harvard referencing system. Page 2 of 11 Problem Description The aim of this assignment is to design a closed loop control system for a chemical process using analytical approach as well as MATLAB/Simulink. You will be given two different processes namely, () two liquid level tanks in series and (ii) two mixing vessels in series (see Fig1 and Fig2 in Appindix1). Each group should choose one process only. If you work individually, again, you should only choose one process from Appendix1. In this assignment you will be able to design your feedback control system, create a P&ID and analyse its dynamic response. You would also be able to design and tune your PID controller and evaluate the stability of your control system using analytical approach as well as MATLAB and Simulink. Section A: P&ID for your selected closed loop control system In this section you are required to carry out the following tasks; For those who are selecting liquid level system (Fig1): TaskA1: It is required to control the outlet flow rate Q3 in the second ank by regulating the inlet flow rate Q1. Add all components required and develop a line diagram for a closed loop liquid level control. TaskA2: Draw a P&ID of the liquid level control system. [lt's recommended to use MS Visio. However, you may use any other software, e.g. MS PowerPoint, MS word, etc.). For those who are selecting mixing system (Fig2): TaskA1: It is required to control the outlet concentration, X3, of component A by regulating the concentration Xı of the inlet feed. Add all components required and develop a line diagram for a feedback composition/concentration control system. Page 3 of 11 TaskA2: Draw a full P&ID of the concentration control system. [It's recommended to use MS Visio. However, you may use any other software, e.g. MS PowerPoint, MS word, etc.). Section B: Transfer Function and Response of a Process to Step input In this section you are required to carry out the following tasks; For those who are selecting liquid level system (Fig1): The model for a first liquid level tank (shown in Fig1) is given by the following ODE; A1 = 91  92 and; 92 = na where A is the area of the first tank, hy is the liquid height of the first tank, 41 and 92 are the inlet and outlet volumetric flow rate for the first tank respectively and R is the resistance coefficient of valve1. The above two equations can also be duplicated for the second tank using appropriate symbols/notations. [ You need to assume the reasonable values for all required variables, e.g. tank areas, valve resistance, etc.) TaskB1: Assuming zero initial conditions, Use Laplace transform to create the transfer function that describes the relationship between the height H(s) and the flow rate Q.(s) for the first tank (i.e. 1:69). TaskB2: Assuming zero initial conditions, Use Laplace transform to create the transfer function that describes the relationship between the height Hz(s) and the flow rate Qz(s) for the second tank (i.e. 43). 4S Page 4 of 11 TaskB3: Assuming zero initial conditions, Use Laplace transform to create the transfer function that describes the relationship between the outlet flow rate of the second tank Q3(s) and the inlet flow rate Q_(s) of the first tank (i.e. 23 (8). 18 TaskB4: Use MATLAB or Simulink to analyse your selected process when subjected to a step input. You may consider the following open loop system. Assume a value for M. 02(5) Q3(s) T &($) Gpi Gp2 where Gp is the transfer function of the first tank (i.e. Gpu = 22(3) and Gpz is the transfer function of the second tank (i.e. Gp2 = 3(3). Provide a brief discussion to explain the response obtained from MATLAB or Simulink. Is the process show oscillation? Why/why not? If the response shows oscillation, calculate the dynamic performance parameters (rise time, peak time, 2% settling time and the percentage of overshoot). Compare the values of the dynamic performance parameters obtained from calculation with those obtained from MATLAB. [Note: if your response does not show any oscillation, you don't need to calculate the dynamic performance parameters). For those who are selecting mixing system (Fig2): The model for a first mixer system (shown in Fig2) is given by the following ODE; dxz(t) V1 = 9(x1  x2) where Vis the volume of the first mixing vessel, X1 is the concentration at the feed, X2 is the concentration of component A at the outlet of the first mixing vessel and q is the volumetric flow rate. The above two equations can also be duplicated for the second mixing vessel using appropriate symbols/notations. [ You need to assume the reasonable values for all required variables, e.g. volumes, flow rate, etc.] Page 5 of 11 TaskB1: Use Laplace transform to create the transfer function that describes the relationship tlet concentration X,(s) and the inlet concentration X, (s) for the first mixing vessel (i.e. 23 ). [Note: The initial condition (i.e. the concentrations at steady state) is; x3(0) = x2(0) = x1(0) = 1 kg mol/m3). TaskB2: Use Laplace transform to create the transfer function that describes the relationship between the two concentrations X (s) and X3(s) for the second mixing vessel (i.e. 303). [Note: The initial condition is; x3(0) = x2(0) = x1(0) = 1 kg mol/m3). TaskB3: Use Laplace transform to create the transfer function that describes the relationship between the outlet concentration of the second tank X (S) and the inlet concentration X1(s) of the first mixing vessel (i.e. 138). Note: The initial condition is; x3(0) = x2(0) = x1(0) = 1 kg mol/m3). TaskB4: Use MATLAB or Simulink to analyse your selected process when subjected to a step input. You may consider the following open loop system. X2(s) x (s) 7x3(s) Gpi Gp2 where Gp is the transfer function of the first mixing vessel (i.e. Gp1 = 33) and Gpz is the transfer function of the second mixing vessel (i.e. Gp2 = 13(3) . Assume a value for M. Provide a brief discussion to explain the response obtained from MATLAB or Simulink. Is the process show oscillation? Why/why not? If the response shows oscillation, calculate the dynamic performance parameters (rise time, peak time, 2% settling time and the percentage of overshoot). Compare the values of the dynamic performance parameters obtained from calculation with those obtained from MATLAB. (Note: if your response does not show any oscillation, you don't need to calculate the dynamic performance parameters). Page 6 of 11 Section C: Closed Loop Control System In this section you are required to carry out the following tasks; TaskC1: Develop your closed loop control system using the process transfer function obtained in section B. For those who selected a liquid level system, define your process transfer function G,(s) as 31. and for those who selected a mixing system, define the process X (S) transfer function Gp(s) as 3. You need to assume appropriate transfer functions for the valve and the transmitter in your closed loop control system. Assume the controller is proportional controller with a gain Kc. TaskC2: Derive the overall transfer function of the closed loop control system obtained in Task C1. Section D: Stability of a feedback control system In this section you are required to carry out the following tasks; TaskD1: Consider the closed loop control system obtained in TaskC1. Analyse the stability of the system by finding the range of K, that makes the system stable. You can use either a Routh test or direct substitution method. TaskD2: Design your closed loop control system in Simulink and analyse its stability. You should discuss, at least, the response of the system at three different values of Kc (i.e. one value within the Ke range obtained in TaskD1, one value outside the range and one value at the upper limit of the K, range). Provide a clear discussion to explain the system response at these three cases. Page 7 of 11 Section E: PID Controller Design In this section you are required to carry out the following tasks; TaskE1: The proportional controller in TaskC1 is now replaced by a PID controller. Use a closed loop Z&N method to tune the PID controller by finding all required controller gains. TaskE2: Use the values of PID controller settings obtained from ZieglerNichols (Z&N) tuning method in TaskE1 and your Simulink model to analyse the response of your control system to a step input using Ponly controller, Pl and PID respectively. Provide a brief explanation of the advantages of integral and derivative modes in PID controller. [Note: you might need to modify the values obtained from Z&N tuning method to get optimum controller gains that can approximately achieve a quarter decay ratio response). Define all your assumptions. Page 8 of 11 Appendix1 1) Two liquid level tanks in series 4.(t): inlet volumetric flow rate into tank1 4.(t): outlet volumetric flow rate from tank1 43(t): outlet volumetric flow rate from tank2 hi(t): height in tank1 hy(t): height in tank2 R1 and Rz: resistance of valves V1 and V2 Assumptions: Fluid density is constant The tank is cylindrical Tank1 Tank2 V2 Fig.1: Two liquid level tanks in series Model of Tank1: dh(t) 41 dt = 91(t)  92(t) and; 9z(t) = RM (1) Model of Tank2: A, dhz(t) = qz(t) – 93(t) and; 93(t) = R 12(e) Notes; • You should assume your own (but reasonable) values for all variables (e.g. Aj, A2, R1, R2 etc.) required to complete the tasks of the assignment. You may need to conduct a quick search in literature to scale all variables correctly. • The block diagram of the process is shown below. Gpi(s): Transfer function of tank1 Gw(s): Transfer function of tank2 Page 9 of 11 2. Two mixing vessels in series (t): volumetric flow rate (m/min) V, and V. : volume of vessels 1 and 2 (m) xi(t): reactant concentration of nominal feed (kg mol/m) xz(t): concentration of component A at the outlet of Vessel1 (kg mol/m) Xz(t): concentration of component A at the outlet of Vessel2 (kg mol/mo) Xi=1 kg mol/m Assumptions:  The system is initially at steady state.  The feed concentration, X, is 1 kg mol/m  all concentrations, at steady state, are equal x,  Therefore, X3 (0) = x2(0) = x1(0) = 1 kg mol/m3                Mixing vessel1 Mixing vessel2 Fig.2: Two mixing vessels in series Model for mixing vessel1: dxz(t) _ Vi =9(x1  x2) Model for mixing vessel2: vedxz(t) = (x2 – x3) Notes; • You should assume your own (but reasonable) values for all variables (e.g. V, V2, q etc.) required to complete the tasks of the assignment. You may need to conduct a quick search in literature to scale all variables correctly. • The block diagram of the process is shown below. X2(s) Gp(s): Transfer function of mixing vessel1 Gpz(S): Transfer function of mixing vessel2 X1(S) X3(s) Gp1 Gp2 << End of Assignment >> Page 10 of 11 Marking criteria The marking criteria shown below describes the required criteria to achieve maximal marks for individual task. Task Marking criteria to achieve maximum mark Maximal achievable mark 10 Ho 42(S) Develop a complete line diagram by showing and defining all (A)(1) required components in the closed loop control system. (A)(2) Construct a full P&ID of your selected feedback control loop. Define all symbols and labels used. (B)(1) Use the given data to derive the transfer function 107 of the process. Show all steps of your calculation. Use the given data to derive the transfer function 25 of the process. Show all steps of your calculation. Use the given data to derive the transfer function 369 of the Qı(S) process. Show all steps of your calculation. Analyse the response of your control system to a step input. (B)(4) comment on the response obtained and give a clear explanation on why there is/there is no' oscillation in the response. In case of oscillation, calculate the dynamic performance criteria (tp, tr, ts and %OS). You should also compare these values with those obtained from MATLAB/Simulink. Design your closed loop control system. You need to show (C)(1) reasonable assumptions to define the transfer functions of the control valve and the transmitter. If you select these transfer functions from literature, you must provide a proper referencing (i.e. Harvard style). Derive the overall transfer function of your complete feedback (C) (2) control system. Show all steps of calculation. Analyse the stability of the feedback system and find the range of the controller gain that makes the system stable. Use either Routh test or direct substitution methods. Show all (D)(1) steps. (D)(2) Design your closed loop control system in Simulink and analyse/discuss the stability of your Simulink model using different values of proportional gain obtained in D(1). (E)(1) Use Z&N tuning method to tune your PID controller. Show all steps of your calculation. (E) (2) Use the values of PID controller settings obtained from ZieglerNichols tuning method and your Simulink model to analyse the response of the outlet temperature of the heat exchanger to a unit step input using Ponly controller, Pl and PID. Explain the advantages of integral and derivative modes in PID controller. Modify these the controller gains manually to get a response close to 44 decay ratio. Page 11 of 11

Heat Transfer You need to submit softcopy (PDF) of your detailed report. Follow the following guidelines for completion of the project. The report should include: 1. Assumptions if any, 2. All input data, calculations should be performed in detail. 3. All charts and tables with captions used in calculations should be included. 4. You can use Excel or MATLAB and provide their results as figures with captions in report 5. Code/calculation table/supporting files should be attached as Appendix. 6. You need to research in the reference book proposed in the syllabus to get information/ data, include their reference at end of your report. Problem Statement: Design a doublepipe Heat Exchanger An organic liquid at 175 °F is to be cooled with water that is available at 70°F. A doublepipe heat exchanger consisting of six hairpins connected in series will be used. Each hairpin is 16 ft long and is made with 2 and 1in. stainless steel (k = 9.2 Btu/h.ft°F) pipes. Flow rates and fluid properties, which may be assumed constant, are given below. The organic liquid will flow through the inner pipe, and its heattransfer coefficient has been determined: hi =250 Btu/h.ft. °F. The streams will flow countercurrently through the exchanger. Property Organic Liquid Water m(mass flow rate)lb/hr 11765 7000 Cp(Btu/lbm. °F) 0.51 1 K(Btu/h.ft. °F) 0.38 Μ(cp) 0.65 Pr 4.14 1. Calculate the heattransfer coefficient, ho, for the water. 2. Calculate the clean overall heattransfer coefficient. 3. Determine the outlet temperatures of the two streams that will be achieved when the heat exchanger is first placed in service. 4. Calculate the average wall temperature of the inner pipe when the heat exchanger is clean.
TutorBin is India's fastest growing Question and Answers Board for Tutors to earn while they learn. One can earn while they are in college, preparing for a competitive exam or doing a job. We provide the tutor experience certificate also, which one can use as tutoring work experience.
Engineering/commerce/Biology/writing (essay/summary) students can take advantage of our services.
Registration process is very simple, only your college ID/degree proof and PAN card pictures are needed. One can earn upto 2k3k/day which can be redeemed instantly (which is fastest out of all tutoring sites.)